Showing posts with label Collection. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Collection. Show all posts

राष्ट्रियता :७० बुँदे मागहरु ।

१. सन् १९५० को नेपाल भारत सन्धि लगायत सम्पूर्ण असमान सन्धि सम्झौता खारेज गरी राष्ट्रिय सहमतिका आधारमा नयाँ सन्धि सम्झौता गरियोस् ।

२. सन् १९६५ को नेपालको राष्ट्रिय हित प्रतिकूलको सुरक्षा सम्बन्धी सन्धि खारेज गरी नेपालको राष्ट्रिय सुरक्षा नीति अनुरुप नयाँ सन्धि गरियोस् ।

३. एकीकृत महाकाली सन्धि खारेज गरी सीमा नदीको मान्यता र समान हितका आधारमा नयाँ सम्झौता गरियोस् ।

४. नेपाल-भारत खुल्ला सीमा नियन्त्रित र व्यवस्थित गरियोस् । नेपालतर्फ गरिएको सीमा अतिक्रमण तत्काल रोकी मिचिएको सम्पूर्ण भूभाग नेपाललाई फिर्ता गरियोस् ।

५. नेपाल-भारत सिमावर्ती क्षेत्रमा भारतले एकपक्षीय ढंगले बाँध तथा तटबन्धहरु निर्माण गर्ने कार्य बन्द गरियोस् । एकपक्षीय ढंगले निर्माण गरिएका लक्ष्मणपुर, महली सागर र रसियावाल-खुर्दलोटन बाँधबाट नेपालतर्फ भएको क्षतिको क्षतिपूर्ति लिइयोस् ।

६. तराई मधेश लगायत भारतसँगको सिमाक्षेत्रका जनतामाथि हुँदै आइरहेको लुटपाट, अशान्ति, असुरक्षा, हिंसा र आतंकको अन्त गरी जनधनको सुरक्षाको सुनिश्चित गरियोस् । नेपाली भूमिमा अनाधिकृत रुपमा भारतीय सुरक्षाकर्मीहरुको प्रवेश रोकियोस् ।

७. भारतीय नम्बर प्लेटका गाडीहरु नेपाल भित्र चल्न रोकियोस् ।

Annex 2. Comprehensive Peace Agreement [Signed by the Nepal Government and the CPN (M) on 22 November 2006, 8.29 PM, (Unofficial translation)]

Preamble:
Respecting people’s mandate for democracy, peace and progress expressed through repeated historic people’s movement and struggles since 1951, Reaffirming commitments to the 12-point and 8-point agreements, and 25-point code of conduct between the seven parties and the Maoists; decisions taken during the meeting of the top leaders of the seven parties and the Maoist on November 8 along with other agreements, understandings, code of conducts and letter sent to the United Nations stating identical viewpoints by the Maoists and the Nepal government, Pledging for progressive restructuring of the state by resolving prevailing problems related with class, ethnicity, regional and gender differences, Reiterating commitments to competitive multiparty democratic system, civil liberties, fundamental rights, human rights, complete press freedom, rule of law and all other norms and values of democratic system, Pledging commitments to Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 and other international humanitarian laws and values and principles of the human rights, Guaranteeing the fundamental rights of the Nepalese people to cast their votes in the constituent assembly polls without any kind of fear, By putting democracy, peace,

Annex 1 12-Point Understanding Between Seven Parties and the Maoists Kathmandu, 22 Nov. 2005. (Unofficial translation)


1.      Today, democracy, peace, prosperity, social advancement and a free and sovereign Nepal is the chief wish of all Nepalese. We completely agree that autocratic monarchy is the main hurdle in (realising) this. It is our clear view that without establishing absolute democracy by ending autocratic monarchy, there is no possibility of peace, progress and prosperity in the country. Therefore, an understanding has been reached to establish absolute democracy by ending autocratic monarchy, with all forces against the autocratic monarchy centralizing their assault against autocratic monarchy from their respective positions, thereby creating a nationwide storm of democratic protests.

2.      The seven agitating parties are fully committed to the fact that only by establishing absolute democracy through the restoration of the Parliament with the force of agitation, forming an all-party government with complete authority, holding elections to a constituent assembly through dialogue and understanding with the Maoists, can the existing conflict in the country be resolved and sovereignty and state power completely transferred to the people. It is the view and commitment of the CPN (Maoist) that the above mentioned goal can be achieved by holding a national political conference of the agitating democratic forces, and through its decision, forming an interim government to hold constituent assembly elections. An understanding has been reached between the agitating seven parties and the CPN (Maoist) to continue dialogue on this procedural work-list and find a common understanding. It has been agreed that the force of people's movement is the only alternative to achieve this.

यसकारण नयाँ पार्टी: नेकपा-माओवादीको राजनीतिक प्रस्ताव ।


(१) दोस्रो राष्ट्रिय सम्मेलनमा लिइएको सर्वपक्षीय सम्मेलन, अन्तरिम सरकार र त्यसको नेतृत्वमा संविधान निर्माण सम्बन्धी नीति कार्यनीतिका दृष्टिले मूलतः सही भएपनि त्यसले पार्टीलाई अवसरवादमा फँस्नका निम्ति ढोका खोलिदिएको र सामूहिक नेतृत्वको केन्द्रीकृत अभिव्यक्तिका रुपमा विकसित विचारश्रृंखलालाई प्रचण्डपथका रुपमा नामाङ्कन गरिएकोमा सो नामाङ्कन अहिलेसम्मको स्थिति तथा व्यवहारद्वारा गलत भएको छ।
(२) केन्द्रीय समितिको बैठकमा लिइएको एक्काइसौं शताब्दीको जनवाद सम्बन्धी मस्यौदा प्रस्तावमा मित्र पार्टीहरुको सहयोगी मात्र नभई प्रतिस्पर्धी भूमिका रहने कुरा स्वीकार गरिएको र शान्तिवार्तामा आउँदा मित्रपंक्ति भन्दा बाहिरका शक्तिसंग पनि राजनीतिक प्रतिस्पर्धा गर्ने कुरा देखिएको हुँदा सो प्रस्ताव प्रस्तुत गर्नुको मूल उद्देश्य जनताको जनवादी राज्यसत्ता तथा सर्वहारा वर्गको राज्यसत्तालाई परित्याग गर्नु रहेको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ। साथै, कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी, जनमुक्ति सेना र नयाँ सत्तामा जनवादको विकास गर्न जरुरी भएको कुरा पनि आवश्यक छ।
(३) चुनवाङ्ग बैठकको राजनीतिक प्रस्तावमा लिइएको लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्रको कार्यनीति रणनीतिक बन्न गएको साम्राज्यवादको विश्लेषण गर्दा लेनिन तथा माओको विश्लेषण धेरै पछाडि परेको र नयाँ ढंगले रणनीति तथा कार्यनीति विन्यास गर्न आवश्यक भएको कुरा देखाई रणनीतिक रुपमा लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्रको पुरानै संसदवादी राजनीतिलाई अवलम्वन गर्न पुगिएकोमा त्यो गलत भएको छ।

Means for promoting educational opportunities for out of school children

Author:
   Mr. Bishnu  Prasad Mishra
Under Secretary
NFEC, Bhaktapur
Abstract
Education has the power to transform lives. It broadens people's freedom of choice and action, empowering them to participate in the social and political lives of their societies and equipping them with the skills they need to develop their livelihoods (UNESCO, 2010). Therefore, having the opportunity for a meaningful education is one of the basic human rights. It is a condition for advancing social justice. People who are left behind in education face the prospect of diminished life chances in many other areas including employment, health and participation in the political processes that affect their lives. Therefore, everyone should have the opportunity to have meaningful education. In line to this argument this paper deals mainly with the educational opportunities in Nepalese context, and measures for providing educational opportunities.
In this paper, firstly, presents the evolution of educational opportunity, secondly it describes the vision of educational opportunity of Nepal, and finally, it presents some measures for providing educational opportunity, with special reference to Nepal.

आमाको नाममा प्रचलित उखान

मिती २०६९.०१.०९
मातातीर्थ औंसी अर्थात आमाको मुख हेर्ने दिन शनिबार सबैले आफ्नी आमालाई सम्झे । आमासितै भएकाले मीठा खानेकुरा खान दिए । टाढा भएका र आमा नभएकाले पनि भावना र सम्झनामा डुबेर आमाप्रति सम्मान प्रकट गरे । आमा शब्द आफैंमा पर्याप्त भएकाले समाजमा आमालाई बिशिष्ट रुपमा लिईन्छ । कुनै चिजको ममता र गरिमा दर्शाउन आमा शब्दको प्रयोग गरिन्छ । आमाकै नामबाट बिभिन्न उखान, गीत, कहानी, कविता, गजल पनि तयार भएका छन् ।
समाजमा प्रचलित तर धेरैले त्यति वास्ता नगर्ने आमासित जोडिएका केही उखान यस्ता छन्:
· आमाको दूधको भारा कति गरे पनि तिरिंदैन
· आमा छउञ्जेल माइति
· आमा छउञ्जेल मीठो मसिनो, बाबु छउञ्जेल लामो चोलो

Lincoln’s Letter to his Son’s Teacher


He will have to learn, I know, that all men are not just, all men are not true. But teach him also that for every scoundrel there is a hero; that for every selfish Politician, there is a dedicated leader… Teach him for every enemy there is a friend, Steer him away from envy, if you can, teach him the secret of quiet laughter.
Let him learn early that the bullies are the easiest to lick… Teach him, if you can,  the wonder of books… But also give him quiet time to ponder the eternal mystery of birds in the sky, bees in the sun, and the flowers on a green hillside.
In the school teach him it is far honorable to fail than to cheat… Teach him to have faith in his own ideas, even if everyone tells him they are wrong… Teach him to be gentle with gentle people, and tough with the tough.
Try to give my son the strength not to follow the crowd when everyone is getting on the band wagon… 
Teach him to listen to all men…
 but teach him also to filter all he hears on a screen of truth, and take only the good that comes through.

Karl Marx and Informal Education



“Life is not determined by consciousness, but consciousness by life.”
Karl Marx

Karl Marx never wrote anything directly on education but his influence on writers, academics, intellectuals and educators who came after him has been profound. The power of his ideas has changed the way we look at the world. Whether someone accept his analysis of society or oppose it, he cannot be ignored. As Karl Popper, a fierce opponent of Marxism has claimed all modern writers are indebted to Marx.

Introduction
Karl Marx, the son of Hrischel and Henrietta Marx, was born in trier, Germany (1818).

Rural Development

Meaning and Concept of Development
The word development has different connotations. Economically, it is defined as the sustained increase in per capita income commonly known as GNP.Sociologically, it is viewed in three different angles:
(1) transformation of the socio-cultural structures of a given society e.g., political, educational religious, familial and stratificational aspects of human relationships.
(2) it involves a phenomenon called cultural acculturation whereby a less developed society adopts the characteristics of another developed one. Such acculturation is sometimes known as modernization or Westernization.
(3) it has some political undertones where in its realization involves the real condition of independence whereby people of a social group are able to free themselves from colonial bondage i.e., free from inequality, injustice, ignorance, and even poverty as manifested in all aspects of life-economic, political, social, cultural, and the alike.