Rural Development

Meaning and Concept of Development
The word development has different connotations. Economically, it is defined as the sustained increase in per capita income commonly known as GNP.Sociologically, it is viewed in three different angles:
(1) transformation of the socio-cultural structures of a given society e.g., political, educational religious, familial and stratificational aspects of human relationships.
(2) it involves a phenomenon called cultural acculturation whereby a less developed society adopts the characteristics of another developed one. Such acculturation is sometimes known as modernization or Westernization.
(3) it has some political undertones where in its realization involves the real condition of independence whereby people of a social group are able to free themselves from colonial bondage i.e., free from inequality, injustice, ignorance, and even poverty as manifested in all aspects of life-economic, political, social, cultural, and the alike.
The economic view of development considers reduction or elimination of poverty, inequality and unemployment as an important index of development. Dudley Seers succinctly tackled the basic question of the meaning of development when he wrote.
The questions to ask about a country's development are therefore: what has been happening to poverty? What has been happening to unemployment? What has been happening to inequality? If all three of these have declined from high levels, then beyond doubt this has been a period of development of the country concerned. If one or two of these three have, it would be strange to call the result development even if per capita income doubled.
While economic progress is an essential component of development, it is not the only one, as development is not purely an economic phenomenon. In an ultimate sense, it must encompass more than the material and financial side of people's lives. Development should, therefore, be perceived as a multidimensional process involving the reorganization and reorientation of entire economic and social systems. In addition to improvements in incomes and output, it involves the radical changes in institutional social and administrative structures, as well as in popular attitudes and in many cases, even customs and beliefs. Finally, although development is usually defined in a national context, its widespread realization many necessitate fundamental modifications of the international economic, social and political systems as well.

Importance of Rural Development in Nepal
According to the 1991 census, 90.8 percent of Nepal's total population live in rural areas (8th plan).with more than 90 percent of population living in rural areas deriving their livelihood from agriculture, the economic development of Nepal is that agriculture is the largest sector in the economy of Nepal, accounted for over half of GDP, over 80 percent of employment and 15 percent of recorded exports. About 50 percent farmers own less than 05 hectare land. In terms of geographical area coverage also, out of total localities (VDCS) of 4048 in the country, 4015 localities life in rural areas.
According to 1991 census, the rural literacy rate (of all ages) is 36.8 percent against urban literacy rate of 66.9 percent. The situation is still worse among rural females whole literacy accounts for only 22 percent against 54.8 percent of urban females.
The vast majority of economically active labor force is still involved in agriculture. According to 1991 census. about 82 percent of labor force is still engaged in agriculture in rural areas and the rest work as technical workers(1.8) administrative workers (0.3%) clerical workers(1.1%), sales workers(3.9%), service workers (6.2%) and production workers (4.2%) despite some increase in industrial development.
In most of the rural areas, landless and very small farmers suffer mainly form disguised unemployment. As a result most of the people falling below poverty line is concentrated in rural areas. The rural poverty accounts for 43 percent against the urban poverty of 19 percent. About 41 percent of the rural households fall below poverty line (22.08 percent households of urban areas fall under poverty line). The estimated average per capita income (1988-89) of rural areas was Rs.260 per month, whereas it was Rs.426 per month in urban areas. In terms of income distribution. (NRB 1988), per captia ranking, the bottom 40% income is shared by 25% percent of the rural areas as compared to urban areas which shares 23%. On the other hand, the top 10% is shared by 22% urban areas as compared to rural areas share of 20%. The rural areas also face severe underemployment problems as about 46 percent of its population are under-employed despite the fact that about 93 percent of the total rural population are economically active.
As of 1991, the national crude death rate and infant mortality rate are 13.8 and 102 per 1,000, respectively. In 1974/75 the crude death rate in rural areas was 19.8 percent (11.8 per thousand in urban areas) in 1986/87. similarly, the infant mortality rate in rural areas) during the period 1962-71 remained 167 per thousand (127 per thousand in urban areas) people and the was 15 per thousand (69 per thousand in urban areas) in 1988.
The population per hospital bed was 9, 146 in 1961, the 3915 in 1990. Of course, the number of hospitals, hospital health posts and health centers has increased over time. However it must be remembered that better health service facility and institutions are concentrated in urban areas. About 55 percent of the rural people do not have access to are drinking water about 97 percent of the rural people are devoid of sanitary meat of excreta disposal.
Electricity currently contributes less than one percent to the total energy supply, but shows great potential for the future. Electricity is used primarily in urban areas and the industrial sectors rather than in rural areas. Similarly about 50 percent the rural people live far away from road network. Almost the situation prevails in the case of communication network.
The above facts and figures demonstrate that development Nepal is a real challenge to national development. Therefore, run development should form the foundation for national development. Other words, rural development is a sin-qua-non of and pre requisites for national development.
Rural Development Efforts in Nepal: Objectives, Programs and Impacts.
Programs for the development of rural areas were initiated in Nepal as early as 1952. Since then requisite institutional arrangements from the central to district levels were established to provide goods and services to the rural people. Rural sector programs were mainly focused on the development of agriculture, cottage industries and infrastructure facilities. The main objective of these programs was to enhance the standard of living of the rural people people by expading employment opportunities and thus ensuring higher incomes than before.

Rural Development Programs in Nepal
No planned efforts were made for rural development in the country before 1950. Efforts towards rural development started only after the political change of 1951. The first significant development program initiated in Nepal even before the introduction of the first five year plan (1958-60) was the village development program in 1952. It was well conceived as multisectoral program embracing all important aspects of village community and economy.

Tribhuvan Village Development Program (Tribhuvan Gram Vikas)
After the political change of 1951, the need of guiding rural change in a planned way was recognized. In order to translate the national policy of comprehensive development of rural areas into introduced in 1952. Initially the program was implemented with the aid of the government of united states of America. Later, the village development Program (VDP) was aided by the Indian government. It was through this strategy that systematic efforts were made to push development into rural areas. the program had a pragmatic approach and was divided into three phases. These were: (a) Nucleus development at the lowest level focused mainly on the improvement of existing local infrastructure and facilities like school, playground, wells, roads etc., (b) middle level rural development called Dehat(rural) development, which in addition to nucleus activities includes provision of improved seeds and fertilizer, horticulture and livestock development, basic social services like primary school, first aid kits, drinking water etc., and (c) multi-sectoral intensive village development which besides the middle level package, incorporates soil survey, propagation of scientific farming techniques, extension of health and maternity services, cottage industries, cooperatives etc. Training of different levels of manpower required for the program constituted an integral part of the program. Science VDP was backed by national commitment, it was in-coporated as high priority component in the first five year plan (1956-61).
However, the second plan(1962-64) deplored the ineffectiveness of the program due to limited coverage, the lack of people ;s participation and dichotomy between the U.S. aided and Indian aided program. The new political institution i.e., the Panchayat was assigned the role of medium of local development, and village development program as such was deleted from the plan. The withdrawal of foreign assistance to this program was also a contributory factor to the termination of the village Development Program.

Panchayat Development Model
With the abolition of the parliamentary democracy in 1961, VDP was completely avoided. Later, village panchayat development program was introduced as a strategic measure for rural development, In this model, through legislative acts, authority was decentralized to local panchayats. The project used to be implemented through the local panchayats. The sole objectives of the efforts of this model was to strengthen the panchayats of different levels. As a result these could hardly contribute to the systematic development of rural areas in the country. In this view, it was strongly felt that some other effective strategies were needed to push development activities in the rural areas.

Integrated Panchayat Development Model (IPDM)
It was realized that the earlier rural development strategy did not fill a gap of a national approach to rural development. The strategy was not perfect and had some organizational weaknesses. On this ground and more on fundamental issues, there was a thorough examination of the concept and approach by HMG. Consequently a new concept integrated panchayat development model was born in 1978.
The main thrust of this model was the development of the village and district panchayats as the institutions for rural development. Panchayatization of Rural development program was declared a major policy. The model placed great emphasis on the institutional aspect, in terms of both quality and quantity. The starting from a cabinet subcommittee for policy matters to central, zonal, district and village level. An innovative provision in the model was the service center, nine in each district with a panchayat supervisor as the coordinator. The main function of the center was to help the village panchayats within its jurisdiction center was to help the village panchayats within its jurisdiction center was to help the village panchayats within its jurisdiction in planning and implementation, and to organize necessary training.
The IPDM was, no doubt, politically biased. Hence the emphasis was more on the strengthening of district and village panchayats organization. Thus it could not adequately address the main issues of rural development. The coordinator, the key person in the IRDP was less than effective. As a result the performance of the IRDPs could no be very encouraging.

Integrated rural development model
The fifth five year plan (1975-80) was turning point in the development process of Nepal. Physical infrastructure which dominated the earlier plans was deemphasized for the first time, with the agricultural and social sectors receiving the first fifth plan was to integrate the development process with the panchayat system. The scope of panchayat was thus expanded. The plan also incorporated a new program i.e., small area development program (SADP) to develop 8 to 20 locations. about this time the interest of donors in assisting the developing countries in rural development was growing. The first integrated rural development project (IRDP), Rasuwa-Nuwakot IRDP implemented during this plan period was with the interest of donor agencies.
In the sixth plan, the integrated rural development program was recognized as the strategy for Nepal's rural development. It was visualized that the entire rural territory of the country would be brought gradually under integrated rural development projects. Inline with this policy, a number of such projects supported mainly by foreign assistance were introduced in the country. It was through such projects that the concept of integrated approach for area development was adopted in Nepal.
Initially started as a poverty alleviation measure in tow hilly districts of Rasuwa and Nuwakot in the mid 1970s, the number of districts covered by 15 IRDPs is 40( as of 1997). Although there is not uniformity among the projects being implemented, yet the overall goal of all the projects in one way or other is to improve the living condition of the people living in the project area. The major portion of the IRDP support goes to the areas based programs. The activities supported by the IRDPS generally include those designed to increase production, generate employment opportunities and to help the rural people to satisfy, there basic needs(food, health and education).

Integrated area development program
In early 1970s, a special strategic measure was initiated for the development of remote areas of the northern districts. It came as the remote areas development program. A new strategy for rural development was adopted in the fifth plan (1975-1980) as small area development program (SADP). the approach adopted under this strategy was a phasewise development of rural areas. An individual SADP unit was designed to cover manageably small areas that incorporated about four to five village panchayats with growth potentialities to be developed as growth centers. SADP was treated with high enthusiasm. Implementation of the development program was in good progress in a number of delineated areas. However, towards the end of 1980, the program was abruptly discontinued with out any evaluation.
The program was introduced for the development of the remote areas. The main objectives of the program were: (1) to generate national feeling among the people of the remote areas of northern Nepal, (2) to bring the people of remote area into the main stream of national development, (3) to conserve the ancient arts and manuscripts in the northern area, (4) to improve accessibility and (5) to enhance the quality of the life of the people by social, economic and educational development. The executing agency of the program was the ministry of local development. The development activities covered under this program included drinking water, school building, renovation of monasteries, irrigation schemes, cottage industry, construction of trails and mule tracks. SADP covers entire areas of 12 remote districts and some parts of other six districts.

Role of Ministry of Local Development (MLD)for Nepalese Rural Development.
Ministry of Local Development is the main agency from the government side for rural development. There is a separate section of IRDP at the ministry to look after the IRDPs. The ministry's major role involves preparation of the annual program and budget to carry out the IRDPs. To manage the resources and implement the project activities.
The MLD works as a facilitator, liaison mechanism between the donot and concerned line agencies (ministries or departments). The role of MLd includes
(1) to formulate the program and supervise its implementation
(2) to coordinate the work of ministries in the formulation and implementation of the program and
(3) to bring about inter-agency coordination in the formulation and implementation of the program in an integrated manner at the local level.
The MLD also assists in the implementation of local development program. The other functions of MLD are to remove bottlenecks in the implementation of local development program, to create necessary conditions for smooth implementation of IRDPs and to bring coordination in policy and program formulation
Communication (2+1) EXT 321
The word communication is originated from the Latin word "Communis" which means common. So communication is an art by which a person shares the knowledge, idea, feelings information etc in such a way that each gain a common understanding of the meaning interest and use of the message.
In a broad sense communication means transmission of idea, information, emotions, skills by the use of symbols, words, pictures figures graph etc.
Communication is the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another person.
-Keith Davis(1975)
Communication is the process in which two or more persons or parties exchange information and share meaning.
- Moorhead & Griffin (1996).
Communication is the transmission & inter change of facts, ideas, feelings or course of action.
-Lead & Brown
We can conclude the communication is
- a process which involve people
- a process through which information is transmitted from one party to another.
- an exchange of information between a sender & a receiver in which both parties shares the meaning of the message.
- a means not an end.
General assumed in communication
What is "said " may not "heard"
What is "heard " my not " understood"
What is "understood" may not "acted"
What is "acted upon" may not " permanent"
Therefore " permanent adoption" needs communication
A manger spend most of their time communicating than doing anything else. They spend a large part of each day talking and listening, when they are not talking or listening they are likely communicating in other ways- reading, watching writing and gesturing or perhaps they are just taking the information by seeing and feeling. All these activities are forms of communication. Without communication facts, ideas, and information cannot be exchanged.
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